# Contingency Argument and Cosmic Fine-tuning

#### Contingency Argument

• For everything that contingently exists, there’s an explanation why it exists rather than not (a reason it exists rather than not, it exists because of something)
• The universe contingently exists.
• Therefore, there’s an explanation why the universe exists rather than not.
• The explanation cannot be in terms of the universe.
• The explanation must therefore be in terms of a supernatural being.

#### Cosmic Fine-tuning Argument

• The Field Equation of Einstein’s General Relativity, which calculates the curvature of spacetime, uses two fundamental physical constants: the speed of light and the gravitational constant:
• c = 299,792,458 meters per second
• G = 6.67553 × 10−11 m3 / s2 kg
• Had the values of these constants been just slightly different, stars, planets, and life would not have formed. The fundamental physical constants are thus fine-tuned for life. The question is why.  The only plausible explanation is that an intelligent being created the universe with just those parameters so that life would evolve.

#### Principle of Sufficient Reason

• The arguments use Leibniz’s Principle of Sufficient Reason
• “No statement of fact can be true unless there is a sufficient reason why it should be so and not otherwise.” (Monadology 32)
• Thus there’s an explanation for the existence of the universe and for the values of fundamental physical constants.
• Counterexamples to the Principle
• If the principles of QM are fundamental, there’s real chance in the universe. Nothing explains why a radioactive particle decays when it does rather than sooner or later.
• There’s no explanation of fundamental laws of nature.
• Why is the Field Equation true?
• That’s just how things are
• That’s just the way things are
• Explanations must end somewhere
• Brute facts

#### Contingency Argument

In reply Bertrand Russell argued the universe is “just there, and that’s all.”  Not everything has an explanation, e.g. why a radioactive particle decays when it does rather than sooner or later.   There are inexplicable brute facts and the existence of the universe is one of them.

#### Cosmic Fine-tuning Argument

There’s no explanation of fundamental laws of nature.  Likewise there’s no explanation of the values of fundamental physical constants.