### A Philosopher’s View

In Outline Form

- Philosophy
*Philosophy* is the investigation of fundamental issues by rational argument.
- It’s defined by:

*Philosophy* is the investigation of fundamental issues by rational argument.
- It’s defined by:

- Applied Philosophy
- Application of the philosophic method — the analysis of arguments — to matters of public concern

- Application of the philosophic method — the analysis of arguments — to matters of public concern

- Arguments
- An
*argument* is a piece of reasoning, from premises to a conclusion.

- Democracy
- The idea of democracy is simple: rule by the people. But functioning democracies are complex, for good reason.

- Epistemology
- The investigation of knowledge and rational belief

- Ethics
- The investigation of right and wrong, good and bad, and what should be

- Logic
- Tools for formulating and evaluating arguments

- Probability
- Nature of probability and the mathematical theory

- Scientific Theories
- A scientific theory is
- designed to explain certain kinds of phenomena,
- defined by its postulates,
- supported or disproved by its predictions.

- Big Bang, Electromagnetism, Energy, Evolution, General Relativity, Global Warming, Mendel’s Heredity, Newton’s Gravitation, Plate Tectonics, Thermodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, Special Relativity

- Skepticism
- The disposition to believe based only on rational argument

- Statistics
- The branch of mathematics dealing with presenting, summarizing, and making inferences from data
- Two philosophies of statistical inference:
*Bayesian* and *Frequentistism*