Energy Conversion

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Energy Conversion
  • britannica.com/technology/energy-conversion
    • “Energy conversion is the transformation of energy from forms provided by nature to forms that can be used by humans.”
  • Commonly Converted Forms of Energy
    • Kinetic energy
    • Rotational kinetic energy
    • Electrical energy
    • Chemical energy
    • Thermal energy
    • Nuclear energy
Examples
Electric Motor

Electric energy ⇨ rotational kinetic energy

Electric Generator

Rotational kinetic energy electric energy

Direct Energy Converters
  • Battery
    • Chemical energy ⇨ electrical energy
  • Fuel Cell
    • Chemical energy ⇨ electrical energy
    • A fuel cell is continuously supplied with fuel and oxygen from an external source, whereas a battery contains only a limited amount of chemical energy.
  • Thermoelectric Generators
    • Thermal energy ⇔ electrical energy
    • A solid-state device that either converts heat directly into electricity or converts electrical energy into thermal energy for heating or cooling. 
  • Solar Cell
    • Radiant energy ⇨ electrical energy
    • A device that directly converts the energy of light into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect
Internal Combustion Engine

Chemical energy of fuel ⇨ thermal energy of gas resulting from combustion ⇨ kinetic energy of expanding gas ⇨ kinetic energy of piston ⇨ rotational kinetic energy of crankshaft

Turbines
  • A turbine converts the kinetic energy of a stream of fluid into rotational kinetic energy.
  • Fluids include water, steam, gas, and wind.
  • Most electrical energy is generated by steam turbines, powered by fossil fuels or nuclear energy, attached to electric generators.
Turboprop

Chemical energy of fuel ⇨ thermal energy of gas resulting from combustion ⇨  kinetic energy of expanding gas ⇨ rotational kinetic energy of core turbine ⇨ kinetic energy of stream of gas ⇨ rotational kinetic energy of power turbine ⇨ rotational kinetic energy of propeller ⇨  kinetic energy of stream of air ⇨ kinetic energy of moving plane

Steam Locomotive

Chemical energy of fuel (wood, oil, coal) ⇨  thermal energy of water resulting from combustion ⇨ kinetic energy of expanding steam  ⇨ kinetic energy of piston ⇨ rotational kinetic energy of wheels ⇨ kinetic energy of the locomotive moving on the tracks

Diesel-Electric Locomotive
  • Diesel Engine
    • Chemical energy of diesel fuel ⇨ thermal energy of gas resulting from combustion ⇨  kinetic energy of expanding gas ⇨ kinetic energy of piston ⇨ rotational kinetic energy of drive shaft
  • Electric Generator
    • Rotational kinetic energy of drive shaft ⇨ electrical energy
  • Electric Traction Motors
    • Electrical energy ⇨ rotational kinetic energy of wheels ⇨ kinetic energy of the locomotive moving on the tracks

Nuclear Power Plant

Nuclear energy of uranium ⇨ thermal energy of heated water ⇨ kinetic  energy of expanding steam ⇨ rotational kinetic energy of turbine ⇨ electrical energy