How to Lie with Statistics — to Yourself and Others

Drawing conclusions from statistics is tricky. It’s easy for people to lie with statistics — to others and themselves.

People set forth bad arguments because

they’ve made honest mistakes in their reasoning

they’re biased

they’re deliberately trying to mislead people

Assume the following percentages for a country’s regions:

The percentages are correlated: the larger the percent vaccinated, the larger percent who got Covid. Indeed, the correlation coefficient equals +1, a “perfect correlation.” (Possible values run from -1 to +1.)